Op-Ed: It's Time To Re-Evaluate the Term "Overuse"
Injuries occur in dance frequently. Numerous studies show that at any given time, 40 to 95 percent of the dancers in a given studio or company are injured. This is not news to anyone. But how many times have you been told your injury is because of "overuse"? Doctors use this term often when dancers have pain that comes without any specific injury.
I think It's time to re-evaluate this word, especially in the dance world. Calling injuries "overuse" may actually be harmful.
The term "overuse" in verb form literally means excessive use—to utilize a body part so often that it breaks down. Dancers practice for hours a week from early ages of life to perfect movements large and small. So this seems to make sense: a dancer is dancing many hours a day, a dancer hurts in a specific location, this means overuse.
But compared to other dancers, the amount of use may be ordinary. If 20 high school dancers are all dancing six hours a day, five days a week, and only one develops lingering knee pain, is that really an "overuse" injury? Why doesn't anyone else have pain?
Natalie Cantalino, photo by Steven Karageanes
In these situations, the injury is due to "repetitive use" of an area of the body that has mechanical flaws. The flaw causes inefficiency in movement, putting excessive load and stress in the affected area, which leads to pain, tissue breakdown and injury. These flaws may be rooted in dance technique or human biomechanics. Perhaps it's a lack of intrinsic strength to stabilize the body, which causes other muscles to compensate. Or maybe it's a pelvic malalignment or a functionally shorter leg on one side.
By comparison, most "overuse" injuries are related to training errors, like a sudden large increase in hours dancing, change to a new dance surface, doing extra work outside of normal training, dancing for a new choreographer with a different style or jumping back into classes after a prolonged injury.
Why care about "repetitive use" versus "overuse"? Because each term implies a different treatment. Most overuse injuries are treated by rest and adjustment to training levels and environment. But many times, a dancer is told to take off two weeks, four weeks, wear a walking boot, go on crutches, and then when they go back to class, the pain is still there! That does not sound like overuse if the body part had time to heal and still hurts.
In repetitive use injuries, the flaw needs to be corrected, while treating the pain source as well. So that may mean a full history and physical exam, physical therapy, manual medicine, icing, KT taping, medication and a lot of other things.
So if you are told that you have an overuse injury, think about your situation and see if that makes sense, or whether it's more likely a repetitive use injury. Most of the time, you will be right.
For the past 3 years, choreographer Stephen Petronio has been reviving groundbreaking works of postmodern dance through his BLOODLINES project. This season, although his company will be performing a work by Merce Cunningham, his own choreography moves in a more luxurious direction. We stepped into the studio with Petronio and his dancers where they were busy creating a new work, Hardness 10, named for the categorization of diamonds.
'Tis the season to have some fun in the kitchen. If you want to get more creative than simply baking another pumpkin pie, try these Nutcracker-themed treats—created by and for dancers. These recipes from former Boston Ballet and Joffrey Ballet dancers were first published in Dance Magazine's December 1990 issue. Today, they're still guaranteed to turn any holiday party or dressing room into a true Land of the Sweets.
It's no secret that affording college is a challenge for many students. And for dancers, there are added complications, like the relative lack of merit scholarships that take artistic talent into consideration and the improbability of a stable salary to pay off loans post-graduation. But no matter your budget, a smart approach to the application process can help you focus less on money and more on your training.
According to Drexel University performing arts department head Miriam Giguere, figuring out the kind of financial assistance a school offers is just as important as navigating what kind of dance program you want. Here's how to incorporate finances into your decision-making process:
When dancers get injured, they often think they should eat less. The thought process goes something like, Since I'm not able to move as much as I usually do, I'm not burning enough calories to justify the portions I'm used to.
But the truth is, scaling back your meals could actually be detrimental to your healing process.
We always figured that stretching made us more flexible by loosening up our muscles and joints. Some of us, ahem, might have even tried to fall asleep in our middle splits to get our stubbornly stiff inner thighs to let go.
But it turns out that might not actually be how stretching works.
A new review published in the Scandinavian Journal of Science & Medicine in Sports suggests that increased flexibility actually comes from your brain growing more used to the tension.
"Women are often presented as soft, fragile little creatures in ballet," says Léonore Baulac. "We're not." The Paris Opéra Ballet's newest female étoile is discussing her unease at some of the 19th-century narratives she portrays. "It was real acting," she says with a laugh of La Sylphide. "James kills her by taking away her wings, yet she tells him not to worry and goes to die elsewhere onstage!"
Sitting in the canteen of the Palais Garnier, Baulac embodies some of ballet's contradictions in the 21st century. With her fair curls and dainty features, she could easily pass for a little girl's fantasy princess. As Juliet, she exuded a girlish ardor that felt entirely natural; her reservations notwithstanding, her Sylphide was committed and carefully Romantic in style.
Yet the 27-year-old is no ingénue. At Garnier that day, her sweater reads "I can't believe I still have to protest this s**t," a feminist slogan; last winter, Baulac proudly wore it over a Kitri tutu on Instagram. And her repertoire is as thoroughly modern as she is offstage. A versatile performer even by Parisian standards, she is equally at home in Nutcracker as she is in the works of Pina Bausch and Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker.
With her fearless demeanor onstage, it's easy to see how Washington Ballet apprentice Sarah Steele attracted the keen eye of former American Ballet Theatre stars Julie Kent and Ethan Stiefel. Promoted mid-season from the studio company by artistic director Kent, Steele was cast by Stiefel as the lead in Frontier, his world premiere for The Washington Ballet, this past spring. For the space-themed piece, Steele donned a black-and-white "space suit" onstage, exhibiting dual qualities of strength and grace. Most evocative about Steele's dancing might be her innate intelligence—she was accepted to Harvard on early admission, and plans to resume her studies there in the future. But first, she'll dance.
Lots of college groups do stepping—a form of body percussion based on slapping, tapping and stomping—but Step Afrika! is the first professional dance company to do it. They are currently at New York City's New Victory Theater, presenting The Migration: Reflections on Jacob Lawrence, a show based on the painting series by Harlem Renaissance artist Jacob Lawrence about The Great Migration of the 1900s, when millions of African Americans fled the Jim Crow South and traveled by train to the North for a better life. The Great Migration transformed the demographics of the country, and Jacob Lawrence's paintings became famous for their bold color and evocative power.
As we approach Thanksgiving, there's much to be grateful for. Perhaps one of the most important things on your list is dance. Whether you're a full-time company member, an aspiring professional, an audience member, or you simply delight in dancing in your daydreams, this art form is a creative escape.
That's not to say that being a dancer is easy: Pursuing such a competitive career can be heartbreaking, especially when you're faced with rejection.
La Folía, a short dance film by director Adam Grannick that was recently released online, echoes these sentiments in under 12 minutes.
It took two years of intense nutrition counseling and psychotherapy to pull me out of being anorexic. My problem now is that I've gained too much weight from eating normally. Is there no middle ground? I can't fit into my clothes, but I don't want to go back to being sick.
—Former Anorexic, Weston, CT